Genotipado KIR-HLAC
El genotipado KIR-HLAC  permite establecer el  riesgo de rechazo del  embrión por parte del  sistema inmune de la  madre.



The human immune system (IS) is prepared to eliminate anything that it recognizes as foreign in order to offer appropriate protection against pathogens.

During pregnancy, the mother’s IS faces an element -the embryo- which presents “non self” antigens from the father in cases of pregnancies with their own eggs; or from the father and the donor in oocyte donation cases. The ability of the mother’s IS to “tolerate” the embryo, despite recognizing it as foreign, is essential to achieve a successful pregnancy.

Recent studies have revealed that alterations in the immunoregulatory mechanisms of the maternal response to the fetus may be responsible for some cases of female infertility, implantation failure or miscarriage (1-4).

KIR-HLAC genotyping is a genetic test that allows to assess the risks of the embryo being rejected by the maternal immune system, and thus to direct medical interventions in order to achieve a successful pregnancy.


KIR-HLAC genotyping allows determining the risks of the embryo being rejected by the maternal immune system.

Blood sample from
the couple/donor (4ml)

Maintenance of blood
samples at 4°C until shipping

Shipping of the sample
at room temperature


Results in 15
working days


KIR-HLAC genotyping allows determining the risks of the embryo being rejected by the maternal immune system.

It establishes the risk of rejection of the embryo by the mother’s immune system. 


Add quality and confidence to your assisted reproduction treatment: go one step further and include the KIR-HLAC test in your process. 


Tell your gynaecologist, he or she will show you how KIR-HLAC can make a difference.


Your doctor will find the right option for you.


Your doctor will take care of everything so that we can continue to look after you as you deserve in your journey towards motherhood.

What is KIR-HLAC genotyping?

There are several factors that are crucial to achieve a pregnancy: a good quality embryo, a uterus prepared to receive it and an adequate immune interaction between both to allow the embryo to implant and develop properly.

Maternal immunotolerance towards the embryo is achieved through the interaction between the cells of the maternal immune system present in the uterus (called uterine NK cells) and the embryo. These cells recognize the embryo through receptors located on its surface called KIR, which attach to embryo identification fragments found on its surface called HLA-C.

Several studies have shown that certain combinations of KIR and HLA-C are more likely to lead to complications in pregnancy (1-5).

KIR and HLA-C genotyping allows determining whether there is a good compatibility between KIR uterine receptors and the “foreign” HLA-C presented by the embryo or not. If so, the process of maternal-fetal tolerance will develop correctly and the pregnancy will evolve without complications.

Otherwise, if this compatibility between the embryonic HLA-C and KIR uterine receptors does not exist, the process of embryonic acceptance, and so the pregnancy, will be compromised.

Benefits and added value

KIR-HLAC genotyping allows to:

• Identify the cause of recurrent miscarriages and implantation failure.
• Decide the optimal number of embryos to transfer.
• Prevent possible complications during pregnancy.
• Choosing a donor compatible with the future pregnant woman, both in cases of oocyte and sperm donation.

Process in detail

KIR-HLAC genotyping is performed on the couple’s DNAs. For this, a 4 ml blood sample (collected in a purple lid, EDTA-tube) from each member of the couple is required.

In cases of oocyte or sperm donation, donor HLA-C genotyping is required.


Post-testing indications

In the field of fertility immunological incompatibilities may affect essential reproductive processes which, ultimately, may result in implantation failure, recurrent miscarriages and preeclampsia.

Several studies have shown that severe pathologies associated with pregnancy increase significantly on pregnant women with an incompatible maternal-fetal combination (1, 3, 5).

When the combination of maternal KIR and HLA-C of the future embryo is incompatible, it is advisable to:

• Transfer a single embryo to avoid exposing the mother to a double load of incompatible HLA-C.

• Immunomodulatory treatment can also be prescribed to the expectant mother to increase maternofetal tolerance.

• In cases of oocyte or sperm donation, donor HLA-C genotype and maternal KIR matching is recommended to ensure maternal-fetal compatibility.

1. Moffet A, Colucci F. J Clin Inves. 2014; 124 (5): 1872-1879.
2. Alecsandru D y col. Hum Reprod. 2014 Dec; 29(12): 2637-43.
3. Alecsandru D, García-Velasco JA. Fertil Steril. 2017 Jun; 107(6): 1273-1278.
4. Morin SJ y col. Fertil Steril. 2017 Mar; 107(3): 677-683.e2.
5. Moffet A, Hiby SE. Placenta. 2007; 28 (Supp A): S51-6