Revitalising Fertility:

Deciphering the Impact of Microbiota on Reproductive Treatments

Human fertility is a complex and delicate field where every detail matters. This article explores how microbiota plays a critical role in this area, offering insights for both healthcare professionals and individuals seeking to improve their chances of pregnancy through fertility treatments.

Microbiota and Microbiome: Guardians of Our Reproductive Health

The human microbiota, consisting of a vast community of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and yeasts, resides on the mucous membranes of our body, performing essential functions for life. These microorganisms are crucial in digestion, the activation of the immune system, and the synthesis of vitamins, among others. The microbiome, which encompasses the microbiota and its derived products, contains a genetic richness that far exceeds human genes, underscoring its importance in our bodies.

The impact of microbiota on reproductive health has become a focus of attention. Research shows that a proper balance in the reproductive tract microbiota can positively influence fertility in both men and women.

The Power of Microbiota in the Reproductive Tract

The Vaginal Microbiota and Its Effect on Fertility

The vaginal microbiota, predominantly composed of various species of Lactobacillus, plays a vital role in maintaining an environment conducive to conception and pregnancy. These microorganisms maintain the vaginal pH at optimal levels, preventing the growth of pathogens and favouring healthy conditions for embryo implantation. Research suggests that variations in the composition of the vaginal microbiota may be linked to reproductive difficulties, such as implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages.

The Influence of the Endometrial Microbiota

The endometrium, which was previously considered a sterile environment, can harbour its own microbiota, which can significantly impact female fertility. The presence of certain pathogenic microorganisms in the endometrium has been associated with chronic endometritis, an inflammatory condition that can hinder embryo implantation and increase the risk of reproductive failures. On the other hand, a pathogen-free endometrium or one dominated by Lactobacillus is associated with better success rates in assisted reproduction treatments.

Advances in the Study of Microbiota and Clinical Applications

The development of advanced molecular techniques, such as 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR), has revolutionised our understanding of microbiota. These tools allow for precise identification of the microbial composition of the reproductive tract and its influence on reproductive health. This information is crucial for developing strategies to modulate the microbiota to improve the chances of success in fertility treatments. The customisation of fertility treatments based on microbiota analysis represents a promising horizon. By adjusting the microbiota to a more favourable state using antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, or dietary interventions, the efficacy of these treatments could be significantly improved.


Microbiota and the microbiome emerge as key factors in reproductive health, offering new ways to optimise fertility. The integration of this knowledge into clinical practice can open doors to more effective and personalised treatments, marking an era of innovation in reproductive assistance. As we move forward, it is essential that both healthcare professionals and individuals looking to improve their fertility recognise the importance of maintaining a healthy balance in the microbiota, an indispensable ally on the path to conception and maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

The study of the

endometrial microbiota